Jute Manufacturing Process

Raw jute in the form of bales is processed in jute mills to produce hessian, sacking, jute yarn, bags, and other useful products. Raw jute bales from jute fields or suppliers, carried by trucks are unloaded are stacked in the jute mills godown.

In the selection process, raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the mora by experienced workers.

Raw jute bales are of two types i.e. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting.

The bales are assorted according to end-use like Hessian weft, Sacking wrap, Sacking weft, etc. After selection, jute bales are carried to softening section by workers called Gariwala and Bajawala.

In softening process, jute morahs are made soft and pliable. Two methods are used for softening; the use of softening machine and the use of a jute good spreader.  Generally, an emulsion plant with a jute softener machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute.

The emulsion plant consists of a gear pump, motor, vat, jet sprayer, nozzles, emulsion tank, and jacket. In this softening process, jute becomes soft and pliable, and suitable for carding.

Carding is a combining operation where jute reeds are split and extraneous matters are removed. Jute fibers are formed into a ribbon called “sliver”. There are three different carding sections:

(i) breaker carding
(ii) Inner carding
(iii) finisher carding

In the Breaker carding machine soften jute after piling is feed by hand in suitable weight. The machine by action with different rollers turns out raw jute in the form of jute sliver for finisher carding. In this process, root cutting is necessary before feeding the material to the hand feed breaker carding machine.

  • Finisher carding machine make the sliver more uniform and regular in length and weight obtained from the Breaker carding machine.
  • Finisher carding machine is identical to the Breaker carding machine, having more pair of rollers, staves, pinning arrangement and speed.
  • Nearly 4 to 12 slivers obtained from Breaker carding machine is fed on this machine.
  • The material thus obtained is send to drawing section.

Drawing is a process for reducing sliver width and thickness by simultaneously mixing 4 to 6 slivers together. There are three types of Drawing Frame machine. In most mills 3 Drawing passages are used in Hessian and 2 Drawing passages are used in Sacking.

The slivers obtained from the finisher carding machine are fed with four slivers onto the first drawing frame machine. The first drawing frame machines makes blending, equalizing the sliver, and doubling two or more slivers, level and provide quality and color. These machines include delivery roller, pressing roller, retaining roller, faller screw sliders, check spring, back spring, crimpling box, etc..

In the second drawing, the Second Drawing Frame machine obtain the sliver from the First drawing machine and use six slivers and deliveries per head. The Second Drawing machine makes a more uniform sliver and reduces the jute into a suitable size for the third drawing.

In the third drawing, the Third Drawing frame machine uses the sliver from the second drawing. The Third Drawing machine is of high speed makes the sliver more crimpled and suitable for spinning. The comparison of the three drawing processes:

Spinning is the process of producing yarn from sliver obtained from the Third drawing.

The jute spinning frame machine is fitted with slip draft zone and capable of producing quality yarns at high efficiency with auto-dofting arrangements also.

Drawing ProcessEfficiency Range(%)Productivity Mt/mc/shift
1st  Drawing55 – 731.75 – 2.2
2nd Drawing64 – 741.62 – 1.9
3rd Drawing67 – 701.31 – 1.4